Shaping the Internet: 10 Years of IXP Growth


Over the past decade, IXPs have been playing a key role in enabling interdomain connectivity. Their traffic volumes have grown dramatically and their physical presence has spread throughout the world. While the relevance of IXPs is undeniable, their long-term contribution to the shaping of the current Internet is not fully understood yet. In this paper, we look into the impact on Internet routes of the intense IXP growth over the last decade. We observe that while in general IXPs only have a small effect in path shortening, very large networks do enjoy a clear IXP-enabled path reduction. We also observe a diversion of the routes, away from the central Tier-1 ASes supported by IXPs. Interestingly, we also find that whereas IXP membership has grown, large and central ASes have steadily moved away from public IXP peerings, whereas smaller ones have embraced them. Despite all this changes, we find though that a clear hierarchy remains, with a small group of highly central networks


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